Join Date: May 2004
Location: Toronto, Canada
ANY 4 stroke piston engine regardless of layout has the same basic stuff inside it and they all work fundamentally the same way: Crankshaft, connecting rods, pistons, piston rings, camshaft(s), valves, valve springs, plus a myriad of minor parts to make all this stuff work, plus other stuff to support the engine's function i.e. oil pump, water pump, thermostat, air and fuel delivery systems, etc.
None of this is particular to a V-twin arrangement. The only fundamental difference is the way the cylinders are laid out. You can see this from the cutaway that you yourself posted. The V-twin has two entirely separate cylinder heads and camshafts and camshaft drive mechanisms. In the engine that you posted, both connecting rods share one crank pin; this is conventional but it is not *necessarily* like that. Anything other than a 90-degree V-twin will require a balance shaft running the opposite direction of the crankshaft at crankshaft speed to control vibration - *unless* it has a split crank-pin with an offset that is determined by the amount that the V-angle differs from 90 degrees.
I could be wrong, but I have a funny feeling that you know very little about internal combustion engines in general, because the nature of the questions that you are asking. Before getting hung up on learning only about "V-twins" and nothing else, if this is the situation, it would be more constructive for you to learn about internal combustion engines in general first.
Most of us who have experience with motorcycle and car engines (regardless of cylinder layout!) started simple, with something like a lawnmower or garden tractor. If you can figure out what makes a lawnmower work, the basic principles of every other engine are the same, it's just more/bigger of the same thing and more sophistication.
Helibars, MRA screen, Ohlins damper, reversed shift pattern, sorted suspension, braided lines, Michelin Pilot Power, all else stock 'coz it's fast enough!